In today’s rapidly evolving software development environment, delivering quality web applications demands efficient automation testing practices. The Page Object Model is one of the most effective methodologies to enhance test coverage and maintainability in Selenium JavaScript testing. In this blog post, let us explore how implementing the Page Object Model can improve your automation testing strategy and enhance test maintenance to deliver superior web applications.

Selenium Automation Testing Framework Overview

Selenium is a widely used open-source framework that allows testing of web applications across multiple browsers. It offers a set of libraries and tools with automation of web actions and scenario testing simplified processes.

Key Components of Selenium

The critical components of the selenium automation testing framework are

  • Selenium WebDriver: The offered option allows the testers to automate tasks inside web browsers, like clicking on buttons or filling out the forms. It supports many programming languages and enables flexibility in test automation.
  • Selenium IDE: This tool facilitates test script creation by recording and playing user actions without coding. It’s suitable for creating simple test cases quickly.
  • Selenium Grid: The parallel test execution in different browsers, cloud platforms, and operating systems is facilitated by this component. It makes automation testing and cloud testing easier and more scalable.

You can leverage Selenium Grid over cloud platforms like LambdaTest. LambdaTest is a comprehensive test orchestration and execution platform that leverages artificial intelligence to facilitate the seamless and efficient running of manual and automated tests on a large scale. With a focus on providing a versatile testing environment, LambdaTest empowers users to conduct real-time and automated testing across an extensive array of environments, encompassing over 3000 configurations, including browsers and real device cloud

  • Selenium Server: It is a mediator between test scripts and browser drivers because it handles communication between the WebDriver APIs and the instances of browsers. It is practically handy for automating testing machines remotely or using Selenium Grid.

The Importance of Test Coverage in Automation Testing 

Test coverage being efficient is very important since it indicates the extent to which the test suite examines the functionalities of the software system. This metric is pivotal in finding bugs and checking the functionality under various conditions to ensure application quality. Although comprehensive test coverage is challenging in complex web applications with many functionalities and user interactions, ensuring that the application is tested in all aspects becomes crucial to address the associated risks of undetected defects and ensure a smooth user experience.

The proper testing coverage not only increases the reliability and strength of the software but also makes it more confident in its performance under changing conditions. Therefore, investing in complete test coverage plans is vital since reliable software solutions depend on such strategies for meeting users’ expectations and business needs.

What is the Page Object Model?

The Page Object Model is a design pattern employed in Selenium automation testing to organize web pages into structured objects within the test automation framework. Each web page is encapsulated into a page object, which serves as a repository for all elements and actions related to that page. Encapsulating these elements and actions within the Page Object Model enhances code maintainability, reusability, and readability, facilitating efficient test automation. This approach simplifies test script creation and maintenance by providing a clear and standardized representation of web pages and their functionalities.

Implementing Page Object Model in Selenium JavaScript

To implement the Page Object Model in Selenium JavaScript, follow these steps.

Create Page Objects

The Page Object Model (POM) is the basic principle implemented in the Selenium test automation design that helps organize and control the objects in the application and their interactions. To implement POM properly, we must create Page Objects for every web page in the application. These page objects stand for the respective web pages and contain all the elements and operations that must be performed.

Consider a login page within the application as an example. The related Page Object for this page will contain certain methods to interact with objects such as the username input field, password input field, and the login button. These techniques would remove a low level of interaction, such as finding elements and doing actions on them to make test scripts more readable and maintainable.

A page object is the thing that allows test scripts to concentrate on the high-level interactions between the application and the object instead of the details of individual elements. The application of the approach also improves performance coverage and code. Finally, creating Page Objects is the key to properly implementing the Page Object Model and achieving high-quality test automation with Selenium.

Implement Page Methods

The Page Object Model (POM) component forces developers to implement Page Methods within page objects as an essential step towards using POM for Selenium test automation. Page Methods encapsulate interactions with the Webpage elements and give a clean interface to which test scripts can interact.

Each Page Method of a Page Object will represent a procedure carried out by the user on the web page. Take the login page, for example. Page Methods could include methods, e.g., methods for entering a username and password, methods for clicking a login button, and methods of handling authentication errors. These methods should manage the interaction with different elements, like locating them on the page, doing some actions, like entering text or clicking, and handling any exceptions or errors if they happen in the process.

Page methods can be implemented in Page objects, thus increasing test scripts’ modularity, readability, and maintainability. API-based test scripts can invoke these methods to interact with the web page without the need for the underlying implementation details. The abstraction allows the test script development process to be simpler, promotes the reusability of the code, and ensures consistency across different test cases. Overall, creating Page Objects is essential for implementing the Page Object Model effectively and achieving efficient test automation in Selenium.

Write Test Scripts

Developing the page object model is a major part of the Selenium test automation using the Page Object Model (POM). The actual implementation of the test scripts will utilize the Page Objects to control the interaction process of the application, checking its functionality and behavior.

Scripts for automation testing should be oriented toward a concrete event or a particular application function. It starts by invoking the Page Objects associated with the involved web pages in the scenario. These Page Objects are the interface layer through which application functionalities are accessed.

Based on the available methods of the Page Objects provided, the test script further simulates user interface interactions with the application. It can be expressed as entering text into input fields, clicking buttons, choosing options from drop-down menus, verifying expected results, etc. The assertions are applied throughout the test code to validate the given expectation against the application’s behavior. These statements contrast real outcomes with pre-set expected ones to ensure the application functions properly.

Moreover, test scripts need to be designed to deal with the potential for unexpected situations or exceptions by including error-handling mechanisms. This makes the whole process of automation robust and dependable even when unanticipated problems occur. Organizations can design maintainable, scalable, and efficient test suites by adopting a structured approach to writing test scripts and using the Page Object Model.

Write Test Scripts

The test execution is the final step in the test automation process with Selenium, in which the already written test scripts are executed on the application under test to check its functioning and behavior. A proper configuration must be ensured to drive the Selenium WebDriver tests successfully, and the required browser drivers should be installed.

The execution process usually starts by creating the environment to run the test, which may involve initializing the Selenium WebDriver and configuring any required settings or options. Then, the test scripts, which, through the Page Objects, act to interact with the application, can now be triggered one after the other.

During Selenium WebDriver test execution, the communication occurs between Selenium WebDriver and the browser drivers to launch the requested web browsers and navigate to the specified web pages. Upon executing test scenarios, Selenium WebDriver controls and conducts interactions with the application, e.g., clicking buttons, injecting text, and comparing outcomes.

During the execution process of Selenium WebDriver, the errors and failures encountered by the test execution are captured and reported. This technique makes a test taker quickly able to identify and diagnose issues, accelerates their solution, and ensures the reliability of the test results.

After test execution, the test reports are generated, which present the test coverage in terms of total completed test cases, the pass/fail status of individual test cases, and any error or exception encountered during the automation testing. Such reports are useful documentation and help catch objects to be improved in the system under test. Selenium tests allow us to do exhaustive automation testing of web applications and help to develop high-quality software.

Benefits of Page Object Model in Selenium JavaScript

The benefits of the page object model in Selenium JavaScript

  • Enhanced Test Coverage: With the help of Page Objects, the POM helps turn the web pages into reusable and modular test scripts. This makes complete code coverage possible across various test scenarios and improves test code reuse.
  • Improved Maintainability: The POM deals with different concerns and simplifies test maintenance. The changes to the application UI can be managed by modifying the Page Objects so that the test scripts are not affected, providing the ability to be agile and adaptive.
  • Facilitating Collaborative Efforts: POM enables developers to collaborate with testers through a common test automation structure. Developers are involved in implementing the features, and testers create Page Objects to write a test script, which provides effectiveness and collaboration.


In conclusion, using the Page Object Model in Selenium JavaScript automation testing gives enormous advantages because it increases the number of tests, improves maintainability, and provides collaboration between developers and testers. Page Object Model ensures reusability and modularity by organizing web pages in structured objects and abstracting interactions within the Page Objects. Such a method helps reduce the test script creation and maintenance, allowing for complete test coverage across several cases with enhanced efficiency. Finally, implementing the Page Object Model improves the quality of web applications through strong and dependable test automation processes that satisfy the user’s expectations and business requirements.